Salient Features Of Ur Agreement

The agenda, originally enshrined in the Uruguay Round agreements, has experienced additions and modifications. Some items are now part of the Doha agenda, some of which have been updated. The Uruguay Round was the eighth round of multilateral trade negotiations (NTMs), organized under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) from 1986 to 1993, which included 123 countries as “contracting parties”. The cycle culminated in the creation of the World Trade Organization, with GATT remaining an integral part of the WTO agreements. The broad mandate of the round was to extend GATT trade rules to areas that were previously too liberalised (agriculture, textiles) and new and increasingly important areas that had not yet been taken into account (trade in services, intellectual property, distortion of investment policy). [1] The cycle came into force in 1995 and the deadlines expired in 2000 (2004 for contracting parties in developing countries) under the administrative direction of the newly created World Trade Organization (WTO). [2] Agreements for the two largest areas of the WTO, goods and services, share a framework in three parts: many agreements in the Uruguay round set timetables for future work. Part of this integrated agenda started almost immediately. New or subsequent negotiations have begun in some areas. In other areas, it included assessments or audits of the situation at specific times. Some negotiations were concluded quickly, particularly in the area of basic telecommunications and financial services. (Member State governments also quickly agreed on an agreement for the free trade in computer products, a subject not on the integrated agenda.) The Trade-Related Investment Measures Agreement (TRIMs) calls for the introduction of international treatment of foreign investment and the removal of quantitative restrictions. It refers to five investment measures that are incompatible with the GATT provisions on national treatment and the general elimination of qualitative restrictions.

The integration of intellectual property rights (IPRs) into the Uruguay Round debate was an important extension of the scope of a trade liberalisation agreement. IPRs include the protection of written documents (copyrights), inventions (patents) and trademarks (marks). Most countries have introduced monopoly rules for this type of creation to stimulate the creation of new fonts and inventions and to protect investments in brand manufacturing. However, many of these safeguards have been unevenly implemented around the world, resulting in a considerable amount of counterfeiting and piracy. The world is rich in fake CDs and DVDs, Gucci and Coach wallets and, of course, the international favorite, Rolex watches. At the beginning of the Uruguay Round, there were plans to significantly reduce tariffs and quotas as well as domestic aid programmes. Indeed, in the United States, the Reagan administration initially proposed the total elimination of all trade-distorting subsidies, which should be introduced gradually over a ten-year period. What was eventually achieved was much more modest. The Uruguay Round agreement has been short-lived on several occasions because some countries, particularly the European Community (EC), were not willing to make many concessions to reduce agricultural subsidies. The WTO has replaced GATT as an international organization, but the general agreement still exists as a framework agreement on trade in the products of the Chambers of e and Commerce, which was updated following the Uruguay Round negotiations.

Professional lawyers distinguish between the 1994 GATT, the updated gaTT parts, and the 1947 GATT, the original agreement that remains the core of the 1994 GATT. Disconcerting? For most of us, just refer to the GATT. Trade-related intellectual property rights (TRIPS) relate to patents and copyrights. Whereas previously patents were issued for the

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