Which International Agreement Has Peace And Scientific Research

The Madrid Protocol came into force on 14 January 1998 after all the States that were consultative parties on 4 October 1991 tabled instruments for ratification, acceptance, approval or accession. In the meantime, each contracting party had specific national requirements that had to be met before the instruments were filed. The Antarctic Treaty Environmental Protection Protocol calls Antarctica a nature reserve for peace and science. The Protocol commits States Parties to cooperate in the planning and conduct of activities in Antarctica. The parties are committed to protecting the environment and promoting certain major environmental principles: the signing of the treaty was the first arms control agreement to take place in the Cold War and the complaining countries managed to avoid the internationalization of Antarctic sovereignty. As of 2016, SCAR has members from 31 countries. Members are competent bodies of national scientific academies or research councils that are members of icSU and conduct or plan research in Antarctica in collaboration with a competent ICSU body. As an environmental regime, it is unique – an entire continent, which is essentially peaceful, will remain protected because of the commitment and cooperation of the parties. Antarctic science has led to breakthroughs such as the discovery of the hole in the ozone layer (1985) and the restoration of climate data from hundreds of thousands of years ago. ATCM has adopted numerous measures on scientific cooperation and operational issues, such as telecommunications, meteorology, transport and other issues important to Antarctic research programmes, with expert advice from the Antarctic Research Scientific Committee (SCAR) and the Council of Directors of National Antarctic Programs (COMNAP). The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (CCAS) was adopted in 1972 and governs the hunting and management of Antarctic seals.

In the absence of economic justification and under pressure from international opinion, there is currently no waterproofing in Antarctica and therefore the convention is not in force. Since the first consultative meeting of the Antarctic Treaty (ATCM) in 1961, the parties have often met, now annually, to discuss topics as varied as scientific cooperation, environmental protection measures and operational issues – and are determined to make decisions by consensus. This process has enabled the Antarctic Treaty to become a system with a number of components that meet the specific needs of Antarctic business management while protecting national interests. This regime is now known as the broader Antarctic contract system, which is under the umbrella of the annual ATCM. Other agreements – about 200 recommendations that were adopted at treaty consultation meetings and ratified by governments – include: the International Association of Antarctic Tourism Operators is an industrial body that represents the interests of tourism growth in Antarctica. Many tour operators are linked to the IAATO, which also provides experts for annual contract meetings. Governments that are parties to the Antarctic Treaty and its Protocol on Environmental Protection implement the articles of these agreements and the decisions taken under these agreements by national legislation. These laws generally apply only to their own citizens, wherever they are in Antarctica, and are intended to enforce the consensual decisions of the advisory parties: activities that are acceptable, entry areas, processes that must precede environmental impact assessment activities, etc.

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